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Contrary to popular belief, sweet potatoes and yams are not related. A lot of grocery stores and vendors sell either of the two sometimes labeled incorrectly or just as one type. These two tubers grow in different regions, which are worlds apart. Below are the differences between sweet potatoes and yams.

Appearance

Yams are cylindrical vegetable tubers with a black-brown skin that resembles the bark. It has a reddish, white or purple fresh. Yams are drier and starchier when compared to sweet potatoes. Sweet potatoes, on the other hand, range from a white fresh to a yellow, orange fresh. The sweet potato has different colors of the skin ranging from red, white, purple, brown, and yellow.

The texture of the two tubers is their biggest difference since the sweet potatoes are soft while yams are harder almost being crisp.

Nutrient Content

Sweet potatoes for the longest time have been a favorite to many people because of the high quantities of vitamin A. This vital nutrient maintains good eyesight. It also packs high levels of vitamin E, calcium, and iron. Yams have high levels of omega-3 fatty acids and a higher ratio of fatty acids essential for better health.

Sweet potatoes have a higher content of anti-inflammatory compounds and people with diabetes, arthritis, and other inflammatory diseases should eat more of them. It has a higher content of omega-6 fats, which inhibit the use of omega-3 fats that are in abundance in yams.

Production

In the beginning, before there was the mass exodus of people around the world, originally, growing of sweet potatoes was in Central and South America. Yams, on the other hand, had their origins in Africa and Asia. West Africa still has the highest production of yams in the world standing at 95%.

Now grown in other parts of the world China is on track to be the biggest exporter of Sweet potatoes that has tempered edges.

Taste

The method of cooking can make the taste of these tubers to vary, but there are distinctions when it comes to taste. Yams have a rich flavor with a creamy texture. Sweet potatoes, on the other hand, are sweeter than yams, and the texture is different for each variety of sweet potatoes.

Many people cross the thick line between these two tubers on so many occasions that it is now an issue of contention, which is which. Visit specialty grocery stores for real yams and sweet potatoes.

Without the sun, life on earth would not be possible. It also keeps the planets on their axis, meaning it keeps everything in check not only on earth but also in a few more planets and stars. The earth has a protective layer, much like a shield that keeps harmful rays of the sun away called the ozone layer. Human activities have led to the degradation of the layer, and now the intense and damaging rays of the sun seep through.

Extended periods in the sun will have effects that may cause sunburn, skin cancer, and fast tracks the process of aging. Sunscreen and the sun block help in protecting you against the effects of this harmful UV rays. A large number of the population use the two terms interchangeably. Below are the differences between sun block and sunscreen.

Protection

Sunscreen is less visible on the skin after application while sun block appears as a white paste on the skin. This difference in the characteristics protects you differently from the UV rays of the sun. Sunscreen filters the UV rays of the sun, keeping the harmful rays out while letting some penetrate. No sunscreen can give 100% protection.

Due to the nature of sun block, it reflects the rays of the sun from the skin completely.

Chemicals Used

Most of the sun block available on the market today uses titanium oxide or zinc oxide as ingredients. This makes sun block to have a thicker and more thick consistency, which makes it visible on the skin and harder to spread all over the body.

Sunscreen contains benzophenones, cinnamates, and salicylates, which actively protects you from the UV A and UV B rays. Some people are allergic to certain ingredients in sunscreen and so make a scrutiny of the label for the ingredients used before purchasing sunscreen.

Sun Protection Factor

The sun protection factor scale determines the effectiveness of sunscreen. The SPF is the levels used in estimating the amount of UV radiation that it will take to cause sunburn on your skin. Dermatologists suggest that the sunscreen you use should have an SPF of at least 30, which protects you from 97% of the UV rays.

Sun block, on the other hand, does not appear on the SPF scale since it blocks out the sun’s rays from your skin.

Application

To protecting yourself from the harmful sun rays, apply the sun block or sunscreen at least half an hour before going out in the sun. The nature of sunscreen makes it prone to washing off by your sweat as well as water and will need re-application. After every two hours, re-apply your sunscreen to maintain the protection.

The nature of sun block makes it hard to wash off with water. This makes it a better option if you are going to stay extended periods in the sun. Use up to one ounce of sun block per day to give the necessary protection against the UV rays.

When going out pay particular attention to your face, ears, arms, and hands, this is because they are the most prone areas to sunburn. Spread sunscreen or sun block on each part of your body. Another area that gets serious sunburn is the lips, and most people pay little attention to them. Apply a lip balm that has sunscreen of SPF of 15 and above.

The use of sunscreen and sun block is necessary if you are going out into the sun for more than twenty minutes. The reflective ability of the sun is quite high, 17% on the sand and 80% on snow you should not only use sun protection on the searing hot summer days but cloudy days as well.

Recently introduced is waterproof sunscreen, but it starts to wash off after one and a half hours, so reapplication is necessary. Despite the pasty nature of sun block, some zinc oxide-based sun block is now available on the market. They are brightly colored and are as effective as the traditional sun blocks.

How to Choose Sunscreen and Sun Block

• Dermatologists suggest that your skin tone should direct the SPF levels you should buy. Fair and light skinned people burn more quickly than darker people will. Be assured of protection from UV radiation with at least an SPF level of 15. Re-application should be as per to the instructions on the pack.
• Broad-spectrum sunscreen protects against the radiation effects of UV A and UV B. Some ingredients used by some manufacturers in sunscreen accelerate the consequences of the sun on your skin. Oxybenzone causes hormonal disruption and damage cells speeding up the risk of cancer. Incorporated for its anti-aging properties in sunscreen, retinyl palmitate accelerates the damage by the sun. Go for a sunscreen without fragrance for kids with sensitive skin. Be careful to read the label and watch out for these harmful ingredients.

Stratocaster and telecaster are two types of guitars that were first made popular by Fender. Guitarists around the world hail both as legends. Fondly called strat and tele respectively, the stratocaster and telecaster are easily among the most popular musical instruments in the world. There is substantial difference between stratocaster and telecaster but that should not be taken as a standard. There have been many variants of the two types over the years and it is quite likely that the variants too will have substantial difference so it is better to check the model you consider and deem its suitability given your needs or preferences.

The two types of guitar usually have a body made of alder, which is snappy tonewood. The shapes however are different. The upper horns in particular are different. Stratocaster has a different shape for the upper horns and many feel that this makes it easier to access the higher registers. Others say that the difference is minimal and almost insignificant. Both guitars can be made from standard alder but ash is also a popular choice.

Materials

The stratocaster and telecaster have c shape necks, typically made from maple wood and in some cases there is a maple wood neck and the fingerboard is made from rosewood. Both the types have medium jump frets, the same scale, fret board radius and nut width. The headstock is where they vary. Stratocasters usually have a larger headstock. This is preferred by many as guitarists feel a heavier and larger headstock will produce a better tone and facilitate a more sustained sound. It is necessary to mention here that many guitarists would not even observe the difference, either due to unawareness or the different would be too subtle and unnoticeable to observe.

The stratocaster and telecaster can be made of same materials and be of the same form with subtle differences but there is a distinctly different feel when you hold it and play. Even beginners or amateurs will be able to check the difference during touch and play.

Differences

The real difference between stratocaster and telecaster becomes apparent when you try the pickup. The former has a five way pickup selector switch. The latter has a three way pickup selector switch. While both are single-coil pickups, stratocaster has three fat 50′s single-coil pickups, the telcaster has a broadcaster in the bridge with a twisted tele pickup in the neck. The five way pickup selector switch in the stratocaster allows more options and tones while switching between pickups. You can also employ various pickup configurations.

While SSI and SSDI are very similar, there is one distinguishing difference between the two. Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) is available to those who work and have reached a certain number of work credits. Supplemental Security Income (SSI) is available to low-income individuals that have not reached enough work credits or have never worked. Many people seem to think that both programs are one in the same. They are actually two different government run programs. Both programs are, however, run by the Social Security Administration and the eligibility due to medical disability is determined in the same way.

SSI

Supplemental Security Income is based on need and eligibility is determined according to income and assets. The funds for this program come from general taxes rather than the Social Security trust fund. This program is also not based on work history but, is based strictly on financial need. In order to meet the requirements for the program, you have to have less than $2000 in assets for a single person, $3000 for a couple, and a very limited income.

If someone who is disabled, qualifies for SSI, they can still receive other government benefits such as Medicaid and food stamp benefits. Upon approval, you can expect your SSI benefits to begin the first of the following month after your approval.

SSDI

Social Security Disability Insurance gets funding strictly through payroll taxes. After working for a certain number of years, and contributing tax money to a social security fund, those who qualify for benefits are considered insured. Anyone wish to apply for Social Security Disability Insurance benefits must be younger than the age of 65 and have worked in the past in order to accumulate enough work credits.

One of the added benefits of SSDI is that the spouse and children of a person approved for these benefits, can also receive benefits of their own. These benefits will be partial and are known as auxiliary benefits.

If you are approved for Social Security Disability Insurance benefits, you can expect to wait five months after approval to begin receiving your benefits. There is not a set standard for the amount you will receive, it will depend on your work record.

While the application and approval process can be quite lengthy and time consuming, should you find yourself in a situation where you have become disabled, these benefits could indeed be of great benefit to you.

The human race is teeming with genetic variation. The spectrum of hair colors, eye colors and body shapes is a testament to this. But what accounts for these remarkable differences in appearance? Meiosis, the process of cellular division, is the hallmark of genetic variation. During meiosis, both male and female gametes, or germ cells, are formed. And when gametes, of the opposite sex, join together, they yield zygotes, which form embryos, and ultimately, fetuses and newborn babies. However, this phenomenon would cease to exist without spermatogenesis and oogenesis. A unique type of meiosis forms sperm (spermatogenesis) and egg cells (oogenesis), respectively.

Spermatogenesis

The process of spermatogenesis occurs through meiosis. The male testes, or testicles, consist of small ducts/channels which contain diploid cells, or, the precursors to sperm. The purpose of spermatogenesis to convert the diploid cells into four haploid sperm cells. While diploid cells contain two sets of genetic material (chromosomes), haploid cells contain only one set.

Diploid cells are quadrupled during the process of meiosis, in which cells are divided for reproductive purposes. Once 2 daughter cells are formed, they exchange genetic material amongst their sister pairs of DNA, known as chromatids. This step is highly significant in the context of human genetic variability.

During the second phase of meiosis, four cells are produced, all of which contain 23 chromosomes a piece. Eventually, these 4 haploid cells transform into sperm cells. Once a male reaches the state of puberty, he will produce millions of sperm every day.

Ontogenesis

Oogenesis is relatively similar to spermatogenesis. However, this process occurs in the female reproductive system, rather than the male reproductive system. During the process of oogenesis, one begins with a primary oocyte, or, a female germ cell, which resides in the female ovaries. During the first phase of meiosis, a diploid cell is transformed into haploid cells.

While gamete production between men and women is similar, there are many notable differences between the two. For instance, while men generate four sperm cells, women produce only one ovum or egg cell. When the female germ cell divides during the process of meiosis, it produces an ovum, in addition to three smaller structures, known as polar bodies; these polar bodies are eventually destroyed. The process of oogenesis occurs once every month, and it commences at puberty and ceases at menopause. When the ovum is not implanted by a sperm cell, the endometrial lining sheds, causing what is known as the menstrual cycle.

Both SN1 and SN2 are nucleophilic substitution reactions. However, there are two different types of nucleophilic substation reactions in organic chemistry.

The SN1 reaction is a stepwise process. SN2 is a concerted reaction. In SN1 reaction, the group that is being substituted leaves and in its place we have carbocation, which is then attacked by a nucleophile. In SN2, the substrate and the nucleophile are affected simultaneously. This is the rate determining step. The rate depends on the concentration of the nucleophile and the substrate.

The most striking difference between SN1 and SN2 is the big barrier. Understanding this key element will help you to have a better idea of the difference. In case of SN2, steric hindrance is the big barrier. The SN2 reaction takes a backside approach. The attack will only happen if the nucleophile can access the empty orbital. If there are many groups or substrates in the vicinity and they are not readily leaving thus making way for the nucleophile, then the reaction will be slower. The rate of the reaction will be very slow with too many groups and will be the fastest if there is one group or just an empty orbital.

SN1 and SN2 Reactions

In case of SN1, carbocation stability is the big barrier. SN1 starts when a group leaves and hence facilitates carbocation. The stability of this carbocation will determine the rate of the SN1 reaction. The more stable the carbocation, the faster the reaction. Carbocation of course becomes more stable as there is increasing or faster substitution of carbon.

SN1 reactions are slower to begin with and then become faster as carbocation stability increases. SN2 reactions start at a fast rate and as steric hindrance increases the reaction slows down. Hence, the primary, secondary tertiary state of SN1 reactions are lowest, slow and fastest and in case of SN2 reactions are fastest, slow and slowest.

Occurrences

Both SN1 and SN2 occur in alkyl halides, tosylate and mesylates among other related compounds. The leaving group is typically detached from an alkyne or alkene. SN1 happens in compounds that have relatively weaker nucleophiles, like H2O, CH3CH2OH and CH3OH. SN2 happens in compounds that have relatively stronger nucleophiles, like CH3O(-), N3(-), CN(-), HO(-) and RS(-) among others. SN1 requires polar protic solvents like water, carboxylic acids and alcohols. SN2 requires polar aprotic solvents. In other words, SN2 works better with solvents like acetone, acetonitrile and DMSO. SN1 has a mix of retention and inversion while SN2 has an inversion of stereochemistry.

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Often times, the common question arises, what is the difference between sleet and freezing rain? They are actually two very different weather conditions.

Sleet is frozen precipitation that forms into pellets as it falls to the ground. It can often be seen bouncing off of windshields, other objects, and even the ground. Depending on how much there is and the amount of time that it falls, it can accumulate similar to snow. Freezing rain is much different. It falls just like regular rain and does not freeze until it comes in contact with trees, powerline, roads, or other surfaces that are below 32 degrees.

Weather Conditions

In the event of a sleet weather condition, snow falls and goes through a warm layer, turning it into rain. It then exits the warm layer and hits the cold atmosphere, causing it to refreeze into pellets. This takes place just above the surface of the Earth.

When we have freezing rain conditions, snow falls through a warm layer of atmosphere and then turns to rain. The big difference comes in here; the layer is much bigger and closer to the early. Therefore, the sub-freezing layer is much thinner. Because of this, the rain drops do not have time to freeze into actually pellets. But, because of the freezing temps, the rain freezes upon contact with objects or structures.

Risks

Both weather conditions present unfavorable and dangerous conditions. However, the sleet can inflict damage upon things such as cars because of the form it hits the surfaces in. They can both also present dangerous travel conditions by creating icy roadways. Travelers should always use caution when these conditions present themselves. Bridges and overpasses can become extremely dangerous and icy. This is because the cold air not only passes on top of but, below them as well.

Ice, caused by freezing rain, can be measured quite simply. You will need to find a branch, or an object with a visible accumulation of ice on it. Measure the thickest part from the object, to the outer edge. Then, measure the thinnest part, in the same manner. When you are finished, add the two together and divide by two. The result is known as ice accumulation.

Sleet is measured in the same way that you would measure snow. Simply use a ruler. Find an area where there is accumulation. Stick the ruler down as far as it will go. The resulting measurement is your sleet accumulation.

Many women today, have become unhappy with their bodies, breast size and shape in particular. If you are one of these women and are considering augmentation, you must narrow down your choice to either saline or silicone implants. With a decision like this, it is important to do plenty of research and make the choice that is best for you.

Silicone Implants

In the early 1990’s the sale of silicone implants was stopped. There was some concern from the FDA about the safety of these implants. In 2006, after extensive research and revisions, the right to manufacture silicone implants was reinstated. Silicone implants offer a more natural and softer feel. These are a good option for women that do not have a lot of soft tissue coverage. Silicone implants come from the manufacturer already filled. The silicone implant has less chance of wrinkling and is a good option for women looking to have augmentation done post mastectomy.

Saline Implants

Saline breast implants, are made of a silicone outer shell. The implants are inserted through a small incision and are filled to the desired amount once they are in place. The implant is placed under the breast or pectoralis muscle. Sterile saline or salt water is used to fill the implants once they are in place. Because saline or water is used in filling these implants, they do not tend to have as much of a realistic feel as silicone implants do.

Age Restrictions

Saline implants are offered to women that are age 18 and above. Silicone implants are offered to those women that are 22 and above. Silicone implants tend to have a more realistic feel because of the gel type feeling. However, saline implants tend to give the breast a more rounded shape. Many women compare the feel of saline implants to that of a water balloon.

Incisions

While the incisions for either implant are made just under the breast, those who choose the saline version, also have the option to have it inserted just under the arm since they are inserted unfilled. Silicone implants also require a larger incision to be made since they are prefilled.

One factor for all women having augmentation done should consider, is the fact that the saline is lighter than the silicone and therefore has less chance of having a drooping effect. This is something to think about, especially if you are already experiencing some drooping in the breast area before augmentation.

There are two different sects of Islam. According to scholars, there are many variants of Islam according to beliefs and interpretations of the Quran but broadly there are Shiites and Sunnis. There is substantial difference between Shiites and Sunnis. Iran is predominantly a Shiite country. Saudi Arabia is a Sunni kingdom. Both are Islamic nations with religion as a defining factor of their nationhood, kingdom and dictatorship. Religion plays a key role in every matter of importance for these states.

It is necessary to mention that despite the difference between Shiites and Sunnis, most of their religious beliefs, practices and symbols are similar and some are almost identical. Let us now talk about the differences.

Leadership Beliefs

Shiites believe that the leadership of Islam or the Muslim world must adhere to hereditary succession. According to this belief, Prophet Mohammed should be succeeded by Imam Ali, who was his son in law, and thereon the descendants of the prophet must be the leaders of Islam. Sunnis do not have such a belief. They don’t believe that hereditary succession or blood line must be imperative for an Islamic leader to claim leadership of the religion or the community practicing the religion.

Shiites don’t just believe that Imam Ali and his successors are the leaders of Islam but they also practice this belief. They embark on annual pilgrimages to various shrines revering the Imam and his eleven descendants. Sunnis don’t have any such practice.

Majority

Sunnis are a majority. If you take into account the global populace of Muslims then barely 10% would be Shiites. Nine out of every ten Muslims is a Sunni. Iraq and Iran are notably Shiites. These two countries are ruled by Shiite Muslims. Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Bahrain are ruled by Sunni leaders. Syria has an Alawite regime which is an offshoot of Shiite.

Praying

Sunnis have the practice of crossing their arms when they pray whereas Shiites would keep their arms by the side. Sunnis have five prayers every day while Shiites have three prayers every day. The content of the prayers is similar and almost identical but it is condensed by the Shiites to accommodate all five prayers in three sessions.

Just like their belief, Shiites tend to adhere to hierarchical structures. Living religious leaders are of significant in Shiite majority countries. Sunnis don’t adhere to scholarly scriptures that have been documented by religious leaders in the past. They don’t stick to any hierarchical structure as such.

While onions are a very common commodity in almost everyone’s kitchen, shallots may not necessarily be. While they seem very similar, they do have a few distinguishing characteristics. They are both members of the allium family. Shallots have more of a sweet and mild taste, as compared to onions.

Interchangeable

Although shallots and onions are different, they can often be interchanged in recipes. One thing to keep in mind should you decide to interchange them, is that one small onions equals 3 shallots. It is only a good idea to interchange the two if the recipe calls for cooked shallots. If it calls for raw shallots, onions would not be an acceptable substitute as the flavor would be too overpowering in this scenario.

Flavor

When cooked, shallots tend to quickly lose their flavor, whereas onions retain their flavor. Shallots are also not as crunchy as onions. Technically, shallots are onions but, are distinguished by not only their taste, but by their appearance as well. Basically, shallots are smaller and have longer bulbs than a regular onion.

Health Benefits

Both shallots and onions, have their own health benefits. Onions are rich in two nutrients; allicin and fiber. Both of which reduce cholesterol and blood pressure. They also have properties that reduce inflammation, due to the content of chromium.

Shallots are an awesome source of anti-oxidants such as kemferfol and quercetin. They are also rich in vitamins A and C, and contain high amounts of calcium, potassium, copper and iron.
When used in recipes, onions are often chopped and cooked before being added. Shallots can be used fresh, or even pickled. The recipes for each are virtually endless.

Growth

Onions are often grown in the form of a bulb, where shallots, on the other hand grow in clusters, much like garlic. Shallots are also much smaller than onions are. Onions are also known to be much harder to grow than shallots. The growth of onions requires a seed, whereas the growth of shallots is more from multiplying vegetatively.

Taste

Both shallots and onions offer their own distinct and unique taste. While the options are endless for both, they are both worth experimenting with to try new tastes and flavors that might strike your fancy. Both are relatively easy to work with and make a great accompaniment to almost any dish. They are quick and easy to work up as well. Definitely worth giving the benefit of the doubt to and trying!